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Diamond_4C's

What are the four C’s gemologists use when rating a diamond’s quality?

“COLOR, CUT, CLARITY, CARAT”

What is the name of the 95.5 carat diamond located in the Smithsonian Museum?

What is the name of the 95.5 carat diamond located in the Smithsonian Museum?

What is green chalcedony spotted with red jasper better known as?

What is green chalcedony spotted with red jasper better known as?

What silicate mineral of aluminum and fluorine is the birthstone of November?

What silicate mineral of aluminum and fluorine is the birthstone of November?

What metal comes from cuprite and chalcopryte ore?

What metal comes from cuprite and chalcopryte ore?

What is iron pyrite better known as?

What is iron pyrite better known as?

What is the name of the super-continent that dominated the Earth 240 million years ago?

What is the name of the super-continent that dominated the Earth 240 million years ago?


Gems

  • World’s hardest mineral Diamond
  • Diamond material Carbon
  • Green beryl gem Emerald
  • “Mutton fat” nephrite Jade
  • Yellow or golden gem Topaz
  • Purple quartz Amethyst
  • Gem named after a tsarina Alexandrite
  • Gem found in Tanzania Tanzanite
  • Green chalcedony spotted with red jasper Bloodstone
  • Reddish-brown gem Garnet
  • Black organic gem Jet
  • Opaque blue or azure gemstone (sometimes flecked) Lapis lazuli
  • Purple corundum Sapphire
  • Red corundum Ruby
  • Kashmir Blue type of gem Sapphire
  • Star of India type of gem Ruby
  • 95.5 carat diamond in the Smithsonian Hope Diamond
  • Largest gem quality diamond Golden Jubilee Diamond (546 carats)
  • Largest rough diamond ever discovered Cullinan Diamond (3,107 carats)
  • Diamond in Titanic Heart of the Ocean

Birthstones

  • January Garnet
  • February Amethyst
  • March Aquamarine
  • April Diamond
  • May Emerald
  • June Pearl
  • July Ruby
  • August Peridot
  • September Sapphire
  • October Opal
  • November Topaz
  • December Turquoise

Other Facts

  • Study of Earth’s physical properties Geophysics
  • Study of the motion of Earth’s plates Tectonics
  • Study of rocks Petrology
  • Earth’s age 4.5 billion years
  • Earth’s outer layer Crust
  • Earth’s layer below the crust Mantle
  • Current geologic period Quaternary
  • Current geologic epoch Holocene
  • Current geologic era Cenozoic (recent life)
  • Middle geologic era Mesozoic (middle life)
  • Early geologic era Paleozoic (ancient life)
  • Ancient super continent, 240 million years ago Pangaea
  • Northern super continent, 120 million years ago Laurasia
  • Southern super continent, 120 million years ago Gondwana
  • Earth’s energy Geothermal
  • Ocean surrounded by volcanic “ring of fire” Pacific
  • Large volcanic crater Caldera
  • Scale measuring earthquake intensity Richter scale
  • Tidal wave caused by an earthquake Tsunami
  • Fool’s gold Iron pyrite
  • Uranium and radium ore Pitchblende
  • Aluminum ore Bauxite
  • Mercury ore Cinnabar
  • Copper ore Cuprite
  • Lead ore Galena
  • Hard carbon Diamond
  • Soft carbon Graphite
  • Hard coal Anthracite
  • Soft coal Bituminous
  • Brown coal Lignite
  • Deep black lignite Jet
  • Dense rock formed from cooling lava Basalt
  • Glass formed from cooling lava Obsidian
  • Three types of rock Igneous, sedimentary, metamorphic
  • Earth’s crust most abundant rock Igneous
  • Most common igneous rock Granite
  • Soft igneous rock Pumice
  • Coarse grain rock Gneiss
  • Translucent gypsum Alabaster
  • Shale rock type Sedimentary
  • Cave ceiling fixtures Stalactites
  • Cave floor fixtures Stalagmites
  • Stalactite and stalagmite combination Column
  • Scale measuring mineral hardness Mohs scale
  • Diamond rating on Mohs scale Ten
  • Ruby rating on Mohs scale Nine
  • Talc rating on Mohs scale One
  • Large California fault line San Andreas Fault
  • Large east Africa fault line Great Rift Valley